Tuesday, February 01, 2011
The complaint and miserable state of the poor captives, 1-11; the expectation of deliverance, 12-14; the conversion of the heathen, 15-18; the termination of the captivity, 19-22; the great frailty of man, 23, 24; the unchangeableness of God, 25-27; the permanence of the Church, 28.
NOTES ON PSALM CII
The Hebrew, and nearly all the Versions, give the following title to this Psalm: A prayer of the afflicted, when he is overwhelmed, and pours out his sighing before the Lord. There seems to be little doubt that this is the prayer of the captives in Babylon, when, towards the end of the captivity, they were almost worn out with oppression, cruelty, and distress. The Psalm has been attributed to Daniel, to Jeremiah, to Nehemiah, or to some of the other prophets who flourished during the time of the captivity. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews has applied the twenty-fifth, twenty sixth, and twenty seventh verses to our Lord, and the perpetuity of his kingdom.
Verse 1. Hear my prayer ] The chief parts of the Psalm answer well to the title: it is the language of the deepest distress, and well directed to Him from whom alone help can come.
Verse 3. My days are consumed like smoke ] He represents himself (for the psalmist speaks in the name of the people) under the notion of a pile of combustible matter, placed upon a fire, which soon consumes it; part flying away in smoke, and the residue lying on the hearth in the form of charred coal and ashes. The Chaldeans were the fire, and the captive Jews the fuel, thus converted into smoke and ashes.
Verse 4. My heart is smitten, and withered like grass ] The metaphor here is taken from grass cut down in the meadow. It is first smitten with the scythe, and then withered by the sun. Thus the Jews were smitten with the judgments of God; and they are now withered under the fire of the Chaldeans.
Verse 6. I am like a pelican of the wilderness ] It may be the pelican or the bittern. The original, taq kaath, is mentioned Lev. xi. 18, and is there described. See the note.
Owl of the desert. ] wk cos, some species of owl; probably the night raven. See the notes referred to above.
Verse 7. As a sparrow alone ] rwpx tsippor, seems to be often used for any small bird, such as the swallow, sparrow, or the like. Bochart supposes the screech owl is intended.
Verse 8. They that are mad against me are sworn against me. ] The Chaldeans are determined to destroy us; and they have bound themselves by oath to do it. See a similar case related Acts xxiii. 12-14, where a number of Jews had bound themselves by an oath neither to eat nor drink till they had slain Paul.
Verse 9. I have eaten ashes like bread ] Fearful of what they might do, we all humbled ourselves before thee, and sought thy protection; well knowing that, unless we were supernaturally assisted, we must all have perished; our enemies having sworn our destruction.
Verse 10. For thou hast lifted me up, and cast me down. ] Thou hast lifted me on high, that thou Lightest dash me down with the greater force.
We were exalted in thy favour beyond any people, and now thou hast made us the lowest and most abject of the children of men.
Verse 11. My days are like a shadow that declineth ] Or rather, My days decline like the shadow. I have passed my meridian, and the sun of my prosperity is about to set for ever. There may be here an allusion to the declination of the sun towards the south, which, by shortening their days, would greatly lengthen their nights. Similar to the exclamation of a contemporary prophet, Jer. viii. 20: "The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved." There is now scarcely any human hope of our deliverance.
Verse 12. But thou, O Lord, shalt endure for ever ] Our life is a shadow; we can scarcely be called beings when compared with thee, for thou art eternal. Have mercy upon us, creatures of a day, and thy kindness shall be a memorial in all our generations.
Verse 13. Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Zion ] While he is humbled at the footstool of mercy, and earnestly praying for mercy, an answer of peace is given; he is assured, not only that they shall be delivered, but that the time of deliverance is at hand. The set time-the seventy years predicted by Jeremiah, was ended; and God gave him to see that he was ever mindful of his promises.
Verse 14. Thy servants take pleasure in her stones ] Though Jerusalem was at this time in a heap of ruins, yet even her rubbish was sacred in the eyes of the pious; for this had been the city of the great King.
Verse 15. So the heathen shall fear the name of the Lord ] It is granted that after the edict of Cyrus to restore and rebuild Jerusalem which was about four hundred and ninety years before Christ, the name of the true God was more generally known among the heathen; and the translating the Sacred Writings into Greek, by the command of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, about two hundred and eighty- five years before the Christian era, spread a measure of the light of God in the Gentile world which they had not before seen. Add to this the disperson of the Jews into different parts of the Roman empire, after Judea became a Roman province, which took place about sixty years before the advent of our Lord; and we may consider these as so many preparatory steps to the conversion of the heathen by the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. And to this last general illumination of the Gentile world the psalmist must allude here, when he speaks of "the heathen fearing God's name, and all the kings of the earth his glory."
Verse 16. When the Lord shall build up Zion ] It is such a difficult thing, so wholly improbable, so far out of the reach of human power, that when God does it, he must manifest his power and glory in a most extraordinary manner.
Verse 17. The prayer of the destitute ] r[r[h haarar of him who is laid in utter ruin, who is entirely wasted.
Verse 18. The people which shall be created ] "The Gentiles, who shall be brought to the knowledge of salvation by Christ," as the Syriac states in its inscription to this Psalm: how often the conversion of the soul to God is represented as a new creation, no reader of the New Testament need be told. See Eph. ii. 10; iv. 24; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15. Even the publication of the Gospel, and its influence among men, is represented under the notion of "creating a new heaven and a new earth," Isa. lxv. 17, 18.
Verse 19. For he hath looked down ] This, with the three following verses, seems to me to contain a glorious prophecy of the incarnation of Christ, and the gathering in of the Jews and the Gentiles to him. The Lord looks down from heaven, and sees the whole earth groaning and travailing in pain; his eye affects his heart, and he purposes their salvation.
Verse 20. To hear the groaning ] By sin, all the inhabitants of the earth are miserable. They have broken the Divine laws, are under the arrest of judgment, and all cast into prison, They have been tried, found guilty, and appointed to die; they groan under their chains, are alarmed at the prospect of death, and implore mercy.
Verse 21. To declare the name of the Lord ] To publish that Messenger of the Covenant in whom the name of the Lord is, that Messiah in whom the fullness of the Godhead dwelt; and to commence at Jerusalem, that the first offers of mercy might be made to the Jews, from whom the word of reconciliation was to go out to all the ends of the earth.
Verse 22. When the people are gathered together ] When all the Gentiles are enlightened, and the kings of the earth brought to pay homage to the King of kings.
Verse 23. He weakened my strength in the way ] We are brought so low in our captivity by oppression, by every species of hard usage, and by death, that there is now no hope of our restoration by any efforts of our own.
Verse 24. I said, O my God ] This and the following verses seem to be the form of prayer which the captives used previously to their deliverance.
Thy years are throughout all generations. ] This was a frequent argument used to induce God to hear prayer. We are frail and perishing; thou art everlasting: deliver us, and we will glorify thee.
Verse 25. Of old hast thou laid the foundation ] None taught of God ever imagined the world to have been eternal. Of old, µynpl lephanim, before there were any faces or appearances, thou didst lay the foundations of the earth. It was created by thee; it did not grow by accretion or aggregation from a pre-existent nucleus. There was nothing; and thou didst produce being-substance or matter. Out of that created matter thou didst make the earth and the heavens.
Verse 26. They shall perish ] Nothing can be eternal a parte ante, or a parte post, but thyself. Even that which thou hast created, because not necessarily eternal, must be perishable; necessary duration belongs to God only; and it is by his will and energy alone that universal nature is preserved in existence, and preserved from running into speedy disorder, decay, and ruin.
Yea, all of them shall wax old ] Every thing must deteriorate, unless preserved by thy renewing and invigorating energy. Even the heavens and the earth are subject to this law; for that which is not, from the infinite perfection of its own nature, ETERNAL, must be perishable; therefore the heavens and the earth must necessarily come to an end. They contain the seeds of their own dissolution. It is true that in sublunary things, the vicissitudes of seasons is a sort of check to the principle of dissolution; but it only partially corrects this tendency. Even the productions of the earth wear out or deteriorate. Plant the same seed or grain for several years consecutively, and it degenerates so as at last not to be worth the labour of tillage, however expensively the soil may be manured in which it is planted. I may instance in wheat and in the potatoe, the two grand supporters of life in European countries. All other seeds and plants, as far as they have fallen under my observation, are subject to the same law.
Verse 27. But thou art the same ] awh htaw veattah HU, but thou art HE, that is, The ETERNAL; and, consequently, he who only has immortality.
Thy years shall have no end. ] wmty al lo yittammu, "they shall not be completed." Every thing has its revolution-its conception, growth, perfection, decay, dissolution, and death, or corruption. It may be said that regeneration restores all these substances; and so it does in a measure, but not without deterioration. The breed of animals, as well as vegetables, wears out; but God's eternal round has no completion. I repeat it, - what is necessarily eternal is unchangeable and imperishable; all created beings are perishable and mutable, because not eternal. God alone is eternal; therefore God alone is imperishable and immutable.
Verse 28. The children of thy servants shall continue ] Thy Church shall be permanent, because founded on thee, it shall live throughout all the revolutions of time. And as thy followers are made partakers of the Divine nature they shall live in union with God in the other world, deriving eternal duration from the inexhaustible Fountain of being. Nothing can be permanent but by God's supporting and renewing influence.
ANALYSIS OF THE ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND PSALM
There are two general parts in this Psalm: - I. A description of the calamities of the Church, under the person of an afflicted man, ver. 1-11.
II. The consolation afforded in these calamities, and the ground of it, ver. 12-28.
I. The description, &c., is formed into a prayer proposed in the two first verses: - 1. "Hear my prayer." 2. "Hide not thy face." In this prayer he complains, and shows his wretched state by various metaphors or figures.
1. A consumption of strength: "My days are consumed." 2. From continual weeping: "My bones cleave to my skin." 3. From his solitude: "Like a pelican in the wilderness." 4. From his continual watching: "I watch, and am like a sparrow," &c.
5. From the reproach of his enemies. "Mine enemies reproach me." 6. From his sadness: "I have eaten ashes like bread." All these increased, from a sense of God's displeasure.
1. "Because of thine indignation." 2. Because of his sufferings: "Thou hast lifted me up, and hast cast me down." 3. And the effect produced: "My days are as a shadow." II. He comforts himself in the promises of God: - 1. "I am withered like grass: but thou shalt endure for ever." 2. I shall soon be forgotten; "but thy remembrance is unto all generations." 3. Thou seemest to take no heed: but "thou wilt arise." He was the more confident: - 1. Because the set time to favour Zion was come.
2. This he saw more clearly from the concern with which God had filled the hearts of the people: "Thy servants take pleasure in her stones." 3. He consoled himself in the prospect of the conversion of the heathen themselves: "So the heathen shall fear thy name." 4. For this he gives a particular reason: Because "the Lord shall build up Zion." 5. And he will do this, because of the prayers of the people: "He will regard the prayer," &c.
This should be done in such a manner, that: - 1. Record should be made of it: "This shall be written." 2. And it should be a blessing to those that were unborn: "The people which shall be created shall praise the Lord." And for this he assigns the proper reasons.
1. "The Lord looked down from heaven." 2. "He heard the groans of the prisoners." These mercies call for gratitude and obedience:- 1. They should "declare the name of the Lord." 2. And this will take place "when the people are gathered together," &c.
The psalmist fears that he shall not live to see this deliverance: - 1. "For he weakened my strength in the way, - he shortened my days." 2. Yet he earnestly desires to see it: "Take me not away." To strengthen this petition, he pleads God's unchangeableness; and he proves God to be eternal, because he is immutable.
1. Not so the earth, for it had a beginning: "Of old thou hast laid," &c.
2. Not so the heavens; for they are "the work of thy hands." 3. Neither shall they continue: "They shall perish," &c.
But God is always the same. Every thing that is mutable acquires by its change some property, quality, form or accident, which it had not before: but God, being an infinite Spirit, and infinitely perfect, can suffer no loss, can have no addition. For as he wants nothing, nothing can be added to him; as he inhabits eternity, nothing can be taken from him. In him, therefore, there is no possibility of change; and, consequently, none of decay or perishing.
From these considerations the psalmist draws this comfortable conclusion: - 1. His Church and servants shall continue also: "The children of thy servants," - the apostles, with the patriarchs, shall dwell in thy kingdom-in the new Jerusalem.
2. "And their seed;" as many as are begotten by the Gospel, if they remain in the faith that works by love, "shall be established," - persevere, remain, continue before thee-live in thy presence for ever.
As thou art eternal, so thou wilt unite them to thyself and make them eternally happy.